Northern Ireland after the Good Friday Agreement

Northern Ireland After the Good Friday Agreement: A Look at the Last 20 Years

The Good Friday Agreement was a historic peace agreement signed on April 10, 1998, which brought an end to the decades-long conflict in Northern Ireland. It was a significant milestone in the country`s history, and provided a framework for political stability and economic growth in the region.

Since the signing of the agreement, Northern Ireland has undergone significant changes both socially and economically. The region has seen a decline in sectarian violence, and there has been an increasing focus on economic development, with new opportunities in areas such as technology, tourism and professional services.

Political Stability

The key aspect of the Good Friday Agreement was to establish a devolved government in Northern Ireland, which would include representation from both the Unionist and Nationalist communities. The Northern Ireland Assembly was created under the agreement and has since been central to the peace process.

Although Northern Ireland has experienced periods of instability in government, particularly when the power-sharing arrangement between the two main parties – the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) and Sinn Féin – broke down in 2017, the Assembly has remained in place and continues to operate.

Sectarian Violence

One of the most significant impacts of the Good Friday Agreement has been the decrease in sectarian violence in Northern Ireland. The agreement facilitated the decommissioning of paramilitary weapons, which helped to reduce violence and bring about a sense of normality in the region.

However, while the number of bombing incidents has decreased, there have still been sporadic incidents of violence, particularly around loyalist marching season in July. There are also ongoing tensions in some communities, which occasionally lead to clashes between groups.

Economic Development

Northern Ireland has undergone significant economic transformation in the last 20 years. The region has become an attractive destination for foreign direct investment, particularly in the technology and professional services sectors. This has led to the creation of many high-quality jobs, particularly in Belfast.

Tourism has also become an important part of the economy in Northern Ireland, with the region`s stunning natural beauty and Game of Thrones filming locations attracting visitors from all over the world. The tourism sector has been particularly important in some rural areas, where it has helped to support the local economy.

Future Challenges

Despite significant progress, there are still ongoing challenges in Northern Ireland. Brexit has brought unique challenges, particularly the potential return of a hard border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, which could potentially threaten the peace process.

There is also ongoing work required to address social issues and sectarian divisions in some communities. These issues can be particularly challenging in areas where there has been historical conflict, but addressing them is essential for continued progress in the peace process.


Overall, the Good Friday Agreement has had a profound impact on Northern Ireland over the last 20 years. The devolved government and decrease in sectarian violence have brought a sense of stability to the region, while the continuing economic development has provided new opportunities for residents.

While there are challenges ahead, the continued peace and progress in Northern Ireland are a testament to the resilience and determination of the people of the region.